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陶瓷墙地砖尺寸、表面质量、物性等检验标准

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    2019-6-7 14:30
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    发表于 2019-4-8 22:48:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    陶瓷墙地砖砖质量检测国家标准:吸水率、长宽误差、直角度、表面平整度、耐磨性。陶瓷墙地砖国家标准规定了干压陶瓷砖的定义、技术要求、试验方法、检验规则及标志、产品使用说明书、包装、运输、贮存和订货。瓷质砖执行gb/t4100‐2006附录g(吸水率e≤0.5%)。
    国家分类标准:
    瓷质砖 吸水率 小于等于0.5%;
    炻瓷质 吸水率 大于0.5%小于等于3%;
    细炻质 吸水率 大于3%小于等于6%;
    炻质砖 吸水率 大于6%小于等于10%;
    陶质砖 吸水率 大于10%。



    吸水率表达:
    陶质砖>10%≥炻质砖>6%≥细炻质>3%≥炻瓷质>0.5≥瓷质砖。

    墙地砖产品详细分类(吸水率 0.5%-10%概括为半瓷):
    依用途分:外墙砖、内墙砖、地砖、广场砖、工业砖等。
    依成型分:干压成型砖、挤压成型砖、可塑成型砖。
    依烧成分:氧化性瓷砖、还原性瓷砖。
    依施釉分:有釉砖、无釉砖。
    依吸水率分:瓷质砖、炻瓷砖、细炻砖、炻质砖、陶质砖。
    依品种分:抛光砖、仿古砖、瓷片、全抛釉、抛晶砖、微晶石、劈开砖、广场砖(文化砖)。
    依生产工艺分:印花砖、抛光砖、斑点砖、水晶砖、无釉砖。

      随着现代瓷砖工艺技术不断壮大发展,还衍生出多种创意瓷砖来迎合人们不断更新的家居装修理念。如:喷墨印花砖、木纹砖等。

      陶瓷墙地砖国家标准规定了干压陶瓷砖的定义、技术要求、试验方法、检验规则及标志、产品使用说明书、包装、运输、贮存和订货。瓷质砖执行gb/t4100‐2006附录g(吸水率e≤0.5%);陶质砖执行gb/t4100‐2006附录l(吸水率e>10%)。

      检验标准

      ISO 9001 :ISO9001用于证实组织具有提供满足顾客要求和适用法规要求的产品的能力,目的在于增进顾客满意。随着商品经济的不断扩大和日益国际化,为提高产品的信誉、减少重复检验、削弱和消除贸易技术壁垒、维护生产者、经销者、用户和消费者各方权益,这个第三认证方不受产销双方经济利益支配,公证、科学,是各国对产品和企业进行质量评价和监督的通行证;作为顾客对供方质量体系审核的依据;企业有满足其订购产品技术要求的能力。

      凡是通过认证的企业,在各项管理系统整合上已达到了国际标准,表明企业能持续稳定地向顾客提供预期和满意的合格产品。站在消费者的角度,公司以顾客为中心,能满足顾客需求,达到顾客满意,不诱导消费者。

      3c认证(中国国家强制性产品认证证书):它是各国政府为保护消费者人身安全和国家安全、加强产品质量管理、依照法律法规实施的一种产品合格评定制度。所谓3C认证,就是中国强制性产品认证制度,英文名称China Compulsory Certification,英文缩写CCC。

      尺寸偏差

    瓷砖的尺寸包括边长(长度、宽度)、边直度、直角度和表面平整度。尺寸偏差是指这些尺寸平均值对于工作尺寸的允许偏差。
    ①、边长是瓷砖的长度和宽度尺寸指标。
    ②、边直度是反映在砖的平面内,边的中央偏离直线的偏差。
    ③、直角度是指瓷砖四个角的垂直程度(将砖的一个角紧靠着放在用标准板校正过的直角上,测量它与标准直角的偏差)。
    ④、边弯曲度——砖的一条边的中心偏离该边两角为直线的距离。
    ⑤、表面平整度是由瓷砖表面上的三点来测量的。
      a.中心弯曲度——砖的中心偏离由砖4个角中3个角所决定的平面的距离。
      b.翘曲度——砖的三个角决定一个平面,其第4个角偏离该平面的距离。

      表面质量

    优等品:至少有95%的砖距0.8米远处垂直观察表面无缺陷。
    合格品:至少有95%的砖距一米远处垂直观察表面无缺陷。
      为装饰目的而出现的斑点、色斑不认为是缺陷。
    (缺陷一般指:如抛光砖黑点、针孔、阴阳色、缺花、崩角、崩边等;釉面砖还有落脏、针孔、熔坑等)

      物理性能

    ①、吸水率:它是指陶瓷产品的开口气孔吸满水后,吸入水的重量占产品重量的百分比。国家标准规定吸水率≤0.5%的称为瓷质砖,(平均值不大于0.5%,单个值不大于0.6%,)吸水率>10%的为陶质砖(陶质砖的吸水率平均值为e>10%、单个值不小于9%,当平均值e>20%时,生产厂家应说明)。
    ②、强度:
    a.瓷质砖:厚度≥7.5mm,破坏强度平均值不小于1300n  。陶质砖:厚度≥7.5mm,破坏强度平均值不小于600n。
    b.瓷质砖断裂模数平均值不小于35mpa,单个值不小于32mpa,陶质砖断裂模数平均值不小于15mpa,单个值不小于12mpa。
    ③、抗热震性:经10次抗热震试验不出现炸裂和裂纹。
    ④、抗釉裂性:有釉陶瓷砖经抗釉裂性试验后,釉面应无裂纹或剥落。
    ⑤、光泽度:抛光砖的光泽度不低于55。(光泽度是衡量抛光砖烧结程度的参考指标之一,光泽度越高,烧结致密性越好)。
    ⑥、耐磨性:无釉砖耐深度磨损体积不大于175mm3。
    ⑦、小色差:经检验后报告陶瓷砖的色差值。色差分两种,一种是单件产品自身上的色差,一种是单件与单件之间出现的色差。前者出现的几率很小,而后一种色差较为常见。总体上说,轻微的色差是不可避免的,尤其是不同时间生产出来的产品,色调总是容易发生细微的变化,这与原料变化、配比时计量偏差、烧成时温度、烧成气氛波动等,甚至与气候的改变都有关。所以工厂对出窑产品都要进行“色号”分拣,以保证同一批次产品的色调相同或基本相同。

    物理性能质量指标还有:抗冻性、耐磨性、抗冲击性、线性热膨胀系数、湿膨胀、地砖摩擦系数等。

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